Patagonia, Friday, July 25, 2014
First Nations in Patagonia

Mapuche-English Dictionary


The mapuche or mapudungum tongue did not have a writing system when the Spanish arrived.
There is no absolute agreement among specialists as to the most appropriate phonemic symbols to transcribe the oral expressions. As a very general rule, the simple words ending in a consonant are stressed in the last syllable, for instance: ralun, malen. Those ending with a vowel are stressed in the last syllable but one, for example: huapi, cura, ruca.
This is a list of some names based on mapuches words.

A

Acol: leading to the lake.
Achen Niyeu: place that was once hot.
Acun: to end.
Acutun: to return.
Aila: nine.
Ailinco: water that runs over a rocky bed.
Alicura: a stone that is white like milk.
Alumco: a reflection on the water.
Alumine: shining in the bottom.
Andacollo: (from Quechua) the best among minerals.
Antuco: the Indian?s water.
Aucapan: cougars in heat.
Auquinco: resounding water.

B

Bandurria: migratory bird.
Bio Bio: singing of the fio fio bird.
Botacura: large rock.
Bucalemu: large wood.
Buraleo: river with countless currents.
Butaco: large creek.
Butamalal: large corral.
Butamallin: large swamp or boggy meadow.
Buta ranquil: large pastureland near rivers or ponds.

C

Caburga: tool to crush apple pulp.
Cacha: ornament.
Cachil: boulder.
Cachipampa: salt deposit.
Cahuil: gull.
Cahuin: party, drunkenness.
Calafquen: a lake like a sea.
Calbuco: blue water.
Caleu Caleu: countless gulls.
Caleuche: transformed people.
Calfu: blue.
Calfun: blue eaglet.
Calfupan: blue cougar.
Calfuquen: blue flint.
Calihue: solitary place.
Calquin: large eagle.
Calquinco: large eagle creek.
Calle calle: abundance of iris plants growing near the river bearing the same name.
Callen: solitary river.
Cancagua: rock brazier.
Cangcatun: to grill.
Carelhue: green place.
Carilafquen: green lake or pond.
Carileufu: green river.
Carirriñe: green colihue.
Catanlil: drilled rock.
Catapilco: valley between steep walls.
Catriel: marked, cut.
Caulin: scratch.
Caupolican: hard polished stone like flint.
Cauquen: kind of wild goose.
Caviahue: site of encounter or celebration.
Cayu: six.
Co: water, creek.
Coinco: water of the sand deposit.
Coipo: wild otter.
Colicura: red rocks.
Coli, calu: dun, brownish hue.
Colo colo: wild cat.
Collico: red water.
Collicura: river of red rocks.
Colloncura: rock mask.
Coñaripe: trail of the warriors.
Copahue: place of sulfur.
Copihue: climbing plant and flower of the Andean forests.
Coquimbo: beach inn.
Corel: sand.
Coyanco: oak creek.
Cullén: tears.
Cume: good.
Cunco: brown water.
Cuncumen: water murmur.
Curi: dark or black.
Curico: dark water.
Curu-curru: black.
Cutral co: fire creek.
Cuyen: moon.
Cuyum: sand.
Cuyumhue: sandy place.
Cuzco: navel, center.

CH

Chaan: legs.
Cahcai: thorny bush also called michai.
Chacaico: chacai chicha.
Chacay: yellow, thorny.
Chacayal: thorn wood.
Chacha: greeting.
Chachai: daddy.
Chadi: salt.
Chaica: raft.
Chaitun: to filter, to percolate.
Chalintecun: to order, to deliver.
Challa: pot.
Chamay, Chanuay: earrings.
Chapeco: creek or lake shaped like a woman?s plait.
Chapel: bush in humid places.
Chapelco: chapel creek.
Che: people.
Chemehuin, chimehuin: place of dwellings.
Chenque cura: cemetery stone.
Cheuque, choique: rhea.
Chilca: rosemary plant.
Chilla: saddle.
Chillca: written piece, letter, book.
Chiloe: gull island.
Chichin: evergreen bushes with hard wood.
Chucaro: hard.
Chumpiru: hat.
Chuquin: steal.
Chuy chuy: cold.

D

Dalcahue: canoe place.
Dengo: news, matter.
Diuco: clear water.
Diuqin: bird of prey.
Domullo: its meaning is still under discussion, it might mean drain, female breast, female nose, any tip or sharp edge.

E

Ela: three.
Elcun: make a will.
Elo: fence.
Elpicon: to water.
Eltun: to bury.
Elun: to give, to grant.
Entrequen: ash.
Epu: two.
Epu mari: twenty.
Eyeu: there.
Eyetun: to moan, to weep.

F

Faraleufu: river in a snowy region.
Filo Hua Hum: this name derives from Filohuhum, a legendary chief who turned into stone to avoid surrendering to the conquerors.
Futaleufu: large river.
Futrone: place with a cloud of smoke.

G

Guaico: puddle.
Guaimallen: young girl, maiden.
Gualmapu: in the closeness of the land.
Guapi or huapi: island, land isolated by rivers or ravines.
Guatrache: fat people.
Guluche: Chilean araucano.
Gunei: shrewd person.
Guor, guer, guru: fox.

H

Huaca: cow.
Huacaco: cow?s creek.
Huecu: microscopic fungus of the coirón blanco.
Huechelu: new people.
Huechulafquen: high lake, lake of the end.
Huelemu: recently planted wood.
Huelen: bad luck.
Huellelhue: place to swim.
Huemul: small deer, kind of antelope that dwells in the Andes.
Huenu: what is high.
Huepil: rainbow.
Huerquehue: place where guanacos are hunted.
Hueyeltue: where you can swim.
Huiliches: southern people.
Huinca: foreigner, not belonging to the araucano area.

I

Icalma: very rocky.
Imul: to roll.
In: to eat.
Inacayal: old thing, Quechua word.
Incahuasi: inca?s house.
Isique: insect.
Itahue: pastureland.

J

Jaña: answer.  

K

Kayu: six.
Ke: liver.
Keñi: five.
Kiñe: one.
Kopawe, copahue: sulfur, place of sulfur.
Kula: three.

L

Lacar: rough lake causing fear.
Lafquen, lauquen: sea.
Lahuen co: medicinal water.
Lancuyen: moon eclipse.
Lanin: verb of the first person plural that means ?we are sinking?. Also ?dead rock ".
Lauquen: lake or pond.
Lautaro: bird of prey.
Lemu: rainforest, wood.
Lemu cuyén: sandy wood.
Li: rock.
Lican ray: rolled stones.
Lihuen: light.
Lil: crag, rock.
Liuco: clear water.
Limay: clear river.
Liucura: white smooth stone.
Llacantu: necklaces.
Llohue: hamlet.
Llaima, gaima: drain, ditch, valley.
Llal: widow.
Llanquihue: sunken place or hidden lake.
Llequehue: abandoned site.
Liquiñe: watery eyes.
Loan: guanaco.
Lolen: ditch, pit.
Lolog: soil with holes or depressions.
Lonco: head.
Lonquimay: thick wood.
Luanco: guanaco?s creek.
Lupi: feather.
Luvur: catfish.

M

Machi: quack, medium between the people and the world of spirits.
Mahuida: mountain range, mountain.
Maile, mailen, malen: maiden, young girl.
Maiten: beautiful tree with leaves coveted by the cattle, mapuche word adapted to Spanish sounds.
Malal: corral.
Malalhue: place of corrals.
Mallín: land where the rain water becomes stagnant.
Mana: miraculous delicacy sent by God to the Israeli in the desert.
Mamuilmalal: wooden fence or corral.
Mapu: country, place, land.
Mapuche: people of this land.
Mara: Patagonian hare.
Mari: ten.
Mari mari: literally ten. Greeting used by the mapuches equivalent to good morning.
May: good.
Maya: river.
Meli: four.
Menetue, menelhue: place to bathe.
Menuco: swamp.
Michai: thorny bush whose fruit are used to make jam, mapuche word adapted to Spanish sounds.
Molle: large beautiful tree, sacred among the Incas.
Moluche: people from where the sun sets.
Moquehue: where there is maqui.

N

Nahuel: tiger.
Nahuel Huapi: tiger?s island.
Nalca: edible plant.
Namuncura: foot-shaped rock.
Nauco: creek going downstream.
Nahuen: strength, energy.
Neltume: leave freely.
Neuquén: strong overwhelming booming current.
Nguenchen: creator.
Nguilleo: pine nut, fruit of the pehuen.
Nguillatun, nillantun: pray. It represents the most important ceremony among the natives. Nompuehuenu: on the other side of the sky.

O

Ojanco: river divided into branches.
Ollagua: beautiful view.
Ona: one of the tribes dwelling in Tierra del Fuego.
Oñaupe: poison.
Oñoico: marshland or winding current.
Oñoquintue: to look back.

P

Pachama: old dress.
Paiguen, paihuen: verb form that stands for ?being at peace ".
Paila: with your back to someone.
Paillalco: quiet water.
Paimun: bereft of affection.
Palguin, palquin: medicinal bush.
Panguipulli: cougar?s hill.
Panqui: cougar young.
Pehuenco: pine tree groves creek.
Pellaifa: frost-covered site.
Pellipulli: high hill.
Peñi: brother.
Perihueyco: water pool.
Petrehue: fire.
Peuma: illusion.
Peumayen: dreamed-of place.
Picun: north.
Picun leufu: northern river.
Pichi: small.
Pichimalal: small corral.
Pichimavida, pichimahuida: small hill.
Pichin: few, little.
Pichinco: little water.
Pichitrutruca: musical instrument.
Pilolai y Pifilca: mapuche musical instruments.
Pilpil: take care of, provide proper assistance.
Pirehueico: snow spot, snow hole.
Piren: to snow, snow.
Pitren: pottery jar associated to funerary customs.
Pucará: populations, fortresses, fortified place.
Pucon: clay vessel, entrance.
Puelo: to the east, located in the east.
Pulmahue: to do something right.
Pulmari: to do something right ten times.
Purra: eight.
Puyehue: water teeming with puyes (small fish in lakes and rivers, edible and similar to the sardine).

Q

Quechu: five.
Quechuquina: kingfisher.
Quelhue, quelihue: red tinge.
Quellen: strawberry.
Quellon, quillon: help.
Quemquemtreu: steep slope.
Queñi: scrubland.
Quetralco, cutralco: literally "fire creek ".
Quetrihue: where there are myrtle trees.
Quetrupillán: blunt volcano.
Quichra: smoking pipe.
Quillaco: quilas? creek.
Quilacoyan: three oak trees.
Quila Quina: three points.
Quilquihue: climbing plant site.
Quillehue: place of tears.
Quillen: small ponds formed in the winter, throw an arrow.
Quiñe: one.
Quinchahue: smooth place or place where two things meet.
Quintral: to be even, for two things.
Quiyan: to stock.

R

Rahue: clayish site.
Raihuen: flowery mouth.
Ranco: creek of bets.
Rehue: sacred place exclusively reserved for religious ceremonies.
Ralí: wooden plate.
Reloncavi: festival in the valleys.
Relonche: denizens of the valley.
Relque: seven.
Renalhue: cemetery.
Rucalhue: site appointed to build a new house.
Rucamalen: girl?s house.
Ruca Ñire: fox?s cave.
Rüfüwe: wooden ladle.
Rupanco: waters flowing.
Rutur: pass by, or nearby.

S

Sangcul: to knead.
Sayi: fruit.
Sefolla: onion.
Saihueque, Sayhueque: chief Valentín "Shaihueque".
Sechu: the gnome.
Serfin: to take care of, to serve.
Siquil Shiquil: silver ornament worn by araucano women.
Sotaqui: very large.
Suran: to swear.
Suyai: hope.

T

Tahiel: sacred chant.
Tapilhue, trapilhue: site where peppers are grown.
Temuco: temu water or creek.
Til til: bare, barren.
Trabun: to be united.
Trabunco: encounter of waters.
Traful: confluence.
Trancura: fallen stone.
Tomen: totora (plant).
Toquis: stone axes.
Traitraico: water falling with noise.
Trantrapiwe: mortar.
Trapelacucha: pectoral.
Trompul: twisted, crooked.
Tucapel: to take something by force.
Tunquelen: resting site.
Tupu: brooch whose circular head is made of chiseled silver and a long pin, with which it is attached to the dress.
Tuqueco: dead stick creek.
Tutun: to borrow.

U

Ucun: to stay.
Uhueco: isolated creek.
Ulpo: beverage made with toasted flour and cold water.
Umaln: to lodge.
Une: ahead.
Unguelén: to forget.
Uniquen: there is shrimp.
Uñan: lover.
Uñum: birds.
Upeo: oblivion.
Urumen: to faint.
Uwa: corn.

V

Valcheta: narrow valley.
Veinentun: to approve of.
Velehuen: to result.
Veyentun: to be convenient.
Vichuquen: very isolated place.
Villantun: to live in poverty.
Viravira: life herb.
Viruco: cold water creek.
Vuta cura: large stone.
Vuta leuvu: large river.

Y

Yafu: hard.
Yal: son, descendant.
Yali: mosquito.
Yampai: glare.
Yanquen llaunquen: to invite somebody to have a meal.
Yapa: what is given without an obligation, a gift.
Yapai: to provide.
Yarquen: owl.
Yavu: sturdy, strong.
Yene: whale.
Yepan: to take.
Yeumen: agile.
Yevaltum: to order.
Yicoi: to fear.
Yuco: from "Yucón" sharp.
Yuculcu: ring, bracelet.
Yuen: deer.
Yuli: silverside.
Yumbrel: the rainbow in all splendors.
Yunyay: temperate valley.
Yupi: shoulder.

Z

Zapala: mortal swamp. Zapallo, zapallu: Quechua word, the gourd. In the mapuche tongue: "penca".


Bibliography:
La cultura mapuche - Topónimos Indígenas Patagónicos Authors: Dra. Carmen Zucarelli, Lic. Marisa Malvestitti, Raúl Izafuirre, Jorge Nahuel. Pehuén Lecturas Marcelino Castro García.



First Nations Names

Abipón, Alacalufe, Aonikenk, Akuntsu, Arachán, Araucania, Araucanos, Araona, Atacama, Atacameño, Auca, Aymara, Bauré, Bésiro, Bohán, Caduveo, Cajún, Calchaquí, Canichana, Cavineño, Cayubaba, Chácobo, Chaná, Chango, Charrúa, Chicha, Chimán, Chinook, Chiriguano, Chono, Chorote, Comechingón, Cunco, Diaguita, Ese Ejja, Guaicurú, Guaraní, Guarasu?we, Guarayu, Huarpe, Itonama, Kaikang, Kawésqar, Kolla, Leco, Lípez, Lule-Vilela, Machajuyai-Kallawaya, Machineri, Mapuches, Maropa, Mataco, Mbyá, Minuán, Mocoví, Mojeño-Ignaciano, Mojeño-Trinitario, Moré, Mosetén, Movima, Nivaclé, Ocloya, Omaguaca, Pacawara, Paí tavyterá, Pampa, Payaguá, Payo, Pehuenches, Pikunche, Pilagá, Piratapuyo, Puelches, Puquina, Quechua, Quilmes, Rapa-Nui, Sanavirón, Selk'nam, Sirionó, Tacana, Tapieté, Tehuelche, Toba, Tonocoté, Toromona, Uru-Chipaya, Weenhayek, Xerente, Xokleng, Yagán, Yámana, Yaminawa, Yanomami, Yaro, Yuki, Yuracaré, Zamuco, Zo'é ?Nefitas, entre tantos otros.

(source www.wikipedia.org.ar)
 
InterPatagonia - Information about Mapuche Culture
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