Detailed Information about Mapuche culture and Araucana

Mapuche-English Dictionary

The mapuche or mapudungum tongue did not have a writing system when the Spanish arrived. There is no absolute agreement among specialists as to the most appropriate phonemic symbols to transcribe the oral expressions. As a very general rule, the simple words ending in a consonant are stressed in the last syllable, for instance: ralun, malen Those ending with a vowel are stressed in the last syllable but one, for example: huapi, cura, ruca. This is a list of some names based on mapuches words.

Letter A

Acol: leading to the lake.

Achen Niyeu: place that was once hot.

Acun: to end.

Acutun: to return.

Aila: nine.

Ailinco: water that runs over a rocky bed.

Alicura: a stone that is white like milk.

Alumco: a reflection on the water.

Alumine: shining in the bottom.

Andacollo: (from Quechua) the best among minerals.

Antuco: the Indians water.

Aucapan: cougars in heat.

Auquinco: resounding water.

Letter B

Bandurria: migratory bird.

Bio Bio: singing of the fio fio bird.

Botacura: large rock.

Bucalemu: large wood.

Buraleo: river with countless currents.

Butaco: large creek.

Butamalal: large corral.

Butamallin: large swamp or boggy meadow.

Buta ranquil: large pastureland near rivers or ponds.

Letter C

Caburga: tool to crush apple pulp.

Cacha: ornament.

Cachil: boulder.

Cachipampa: salt deposit.

Cahuil: gull.

Cahuin: party, drunkenness.

Calafquen: a lake like a sea.

Calbuco: blue water.

Caleu Caleu: countless gulls.

Caleuche: transformed people.

Calfu: blue.

Calfun: blue eaglet.

Calfupan: blue cougar.

Calfuquen: blue flint.

Calihue: solitary place.

Calquin: large eagle.

Calquinco: large eagle creek.

Calle calle: abundance of iris plants growing near the river bearing the same name.

Callen: solitary river.

Cancagua: rock brazier.

Cangcatun: to grill.

Carelhue: green place.

Carilafquen: green lake or pond.

Carileufu: green river.

Carirriñe: green colihue.

Catanlil: drilled rock.

Catapilco: valley between steep walls.

Catriel: marked, cut.

Caulin: scratch.

Caupolican: hard polished stone like flint.

Cauquen: kind of wild goose.

Caviahue: site of encounter or celebration.

Cayu: six.

Co: water, creek.

Coinco: water of the sand deposit.

Coipo: wild otter.

Colicura: red rocks.

Coli, calu: dun, brownish hue.

Colo colo: wild cat.

Collico: red water.

Collicura: river of red rocks.

Colloncura: rock mask.

Coñaripe: trail of the warriors.

Copahue: place of sulfur.

Copihue: climbing plant and flower of the Andean forests.

Coquimbo: beach inn.

Corel: sand

Coyanco: oak creek.

Cullén: tears.

Cume: good.

Cunco: brown water.

Cuncumen: water murmur.

Curi: dark or black.

Curico: dark water.

Curu-curru: black.

Cutral co: fire creek.

Cuyen: moon.

Cuyum: sand.

Cuyumhue: sandy place.

Cuzco: navel, center.

Letter CH

Chaan: legs.

Cahcai: thorny bush also called michai.

Chacaico: chacai chicha..

Chacay: yellow, thorny.

Chacayal: thorn wood.

Chacha: greeting.

Chachai: daddy.

Chadi: salt.

Chaica: raft.

Chaitun: to filter, to percolate.

Chalintecun: to order, to deliver.

Challa: pot.

Chamay, Chanuay: earrings.

Chapeco: creek or lake shaped like a woman?s plait.

Chapel: bush in humid places.

Chapelco: chapel creek.

Che: people.

Chemehuin, chimehuin: place of dwellings.

Chenque cura: cemetery stone.

Cheuque, choique: rhea.

Chilca: rosemary plant.

Chilla: saddle.

Chillca: written piece, letter, book.

Chiloe: gull island.

Chichin: evergreen bushes with hard wood.

Chucaro: hard.

Chumpiru: hat.

Chuquin: steal.

Chuy chuy: cold.

Letter D

Dalcahue: canoe place.

Dengo: news, matter.

Diuco: clear water.

Diuqin: bird of prey.

Domullo: its meaning is still under discussion, it might mean drain, female breast, female nose, any tip or sharp edge.

Letter E

Ela: three.

Elcun: make a will.

Elo: fence.

Elpicon: to water.

Eltun: to bury.

Elun: to give, to grant.

Entrequen: ash.

Epu: two.

Epu mari: twenty.

Eyeu: there.

Eyetun: to moan, to weep.

Letter F

Faraleufu: river in a snowy region.

Filo Hua Hum: this name derives from Filohuhum, a legendary chief who turned into stone to avoid surrendering to the conquerors.

Futaleufu: large river.

Futrone: place with a cloud of smoke.

Letter G

Guaico: puddle.

Guaimallen: young girl, maiden.

Gualmapu: in the closeness of the land.

Guapi o huapi: island, land isolated by rivers or ravines.

Guatrache: fat people.

Guluche: Chilean araucano.

Gunei: shrewd person.

Guor, guer, guru: fox.

Letter H

Huaca: cow.

Huacaco: cows creek.

Huecu: microscopic fungus of the coirón blanco.

Huechelu: new people.

Huechulafquen: high lake, lake of the end.

Huelemu: recently planted wood.

Huelen: bad luck.

Huellelhue: place to swim.

Huemul: mall deer, kind of antelope that dwells in the Andes.

Huenu: what is high.

Huepil: rainbow.

Huerquehue: place where guanacos are hunted.

Hueyeltue: where you can swim.

Huiliches: southern people.

Huinca: foreigner, not belonging to the araucano area.

Letter I

Icalma: very rocky.

Imul: to roll.

In: to eat.

Inacayal: old thing, Quechua word.

Incahuasi: incas house.

Isique: insect.

Itahue: pastureland..

Letter J

Jaña: answer.

Letter K

Kayu: six.

Ke: liver.

Keñi: five.

Kiñe: one.

Kopawe, copahue: sulfur, place of sulfur.

Kula: three.

Letter L

Lácar: rough lake causing fear.

Lafquen, lauquen: sea.

Lahuen có: medicinal water.

Lancuyen: moon eclipse.

Lanín: verb of the first person plural that means ?we are sinking?. Also ?dead rock ".

Lauquen: lake or pond.

Lautaro: bird of prey.

Lemu: rainforest, wood.

Lemu Cuyén: sandy wood.

Li: rock.

Lican Ray: rolled stones.

Lihuen: light.

Lil: crag, rock.

Liuco: clear water.

Limay: clear river.

Liucura: white smooth stone.

Llacantu: necklaces.

Llohue: hamlet.

Llaima, gaima: drain, ditch, valley.

Llal: widow.

Llanquihue: sunken place or hidden lake.

Llequehue: abandoned site.

Liquiñe: watery eyes.

Loan: guanaco.

Lolen: ditch, pit.

Lolog: soil with holes or depressions.

Lonco: head.

Lonquimay: thick wood.

Luanco: guanaco creek.

Lupi: feather.

Luvur: catfish.

Letter M

Machi: quack, medium between the people and the world of spirits.

Mahuida: mountain range, mountain.

Maile, mailen, malen: maiden, young girl.

Maiten: beautiful tree with leaves coveted by the cattle, mapuche word adapted to Spanish sounds.

Malal: corral.

Malalhue: place of corrals.

Mallín: land where the rain water becomes stagnant.

Mana: miraculous delicacy sent by God to the Israeli in the desert.

Mamuilmalal: wooden fence or corral.

Mapu: country, place, land.

Mapuche: people of this land.

Mara: Patagonian hare.

Mari: ten.

Mari mari: literally ten. Greeting used by the mapuches equivalent to good morning.

May: good.

Maya: river.

Meli: four.

Menetue, menelhue: place to bathe.

Menuco: swamp.

Michai: athorny bush whose fruit are used to make jam, mapuche word adapted to Spanish sounds.

Molle: large beautiful tree, sacred among the Incas.

Moluche: people from where the sun sets.

Moquehue: where there is maqui.

Letter N

Nahuel: tiger.

Nahuel Huapi: tigers island.

Nalca: edible plant.

Namuncura: foot-shaped rock.

Nauco: creek going downstream.

Nahuen: strength, energy.

Neltume: leave freely.

Neuquén: strong overwhelming booming current.

Nguenchen: creator.

Nguilleo: pine nut, fruit of the pehuen.

Nguillatun, nillantun: pray. It represents the most important ceremony among the natives.

Nompuehuenu: on the other side of the sky.

Letter O

Ojanco: river divided into branches.

Ollagua: beautiful view.

Ona: one of the tribes dwelling in Tierra del Fuego.

Oñaupe: poison.

Oñoico: marshland or winding current.

Oñoquintue: to look back.

Letter P

Pachama: old dress.

Paiguen, paihuen: verb form that stands for ?being at peace ".

Paila: with your back to someone.

Paillalco: quiet water.

Paimun: bereft of affection.

Palguin, palquin: medicinal bush.

Panguipulli: cougars hill.

Panqui: cougar young.

Pehuenco: pine tree groves creek.

Pellaifa: frost-covered site.

Pellipulli: high hill.

Peñi: brother.

Perihueyco: water pool.

Petrehue: fire.

Peuma: illusion.

Peumayen: dreamed-of place.

Picun: north.

Picun leufu: northern river.

Pichi: small.

Pichimalal: small corral.

Pichimavida, pichimahuida: small hill.

Pichin: few, little.

Pichinco: little water.

Pichitrutruca: musical instrument.

Pilolai y Pifilca: mapuche musical instruments.

Pilpil: take care of, provide proper assistance.

Pirehueico: snow spot, snow hole.

Piren: to snow, snow.

Pitren: pottery jar associated to funerary customs.

Pucará: populations, fortresses, fortified place.

Pucon: clay vessel, entrance.

Puelo: to the east, located in the east.

Pulmahue: to do something right.

Pulmari: to do something right ten times.

Purra: eight.

Puyehue: water teeming with puyes (small fish in lakes and rivers, edible and similar to the sardine).

Letter Q

Quechu: five.

Quechuquina: kingfisher.

Quelhue, quelihue: red tinge.

Quellen: strawberry.

Quellon, quillon: help.

Quemquemtreu: steep slope.

Queñi: scrubland.

Quetralco, cutralco: literally "fire creek ".

Quetrihue: where there are myrtle trees.

Quetrupillán: blunt volcano.

Quichra: moking pipe.

Quillaco: quilas creek.

Quilacoyan: three oak trees.

Quila Quina: three points.

Quilquihue: climbing plant site.

Quillehue: place of tears.

Quillen: small ponds formed in the winter, throw an arrow.

Quiñe: one.

Quinchahue: smooth place or place where two things meet.

Quintral: to be even, for two things.

Quiyan: to stock.

Letter R

Rahue: clayish site.

Raihuen: flowery mouth.

Ranco: creek of bets.

Rehue: sacred place exclusively reserved for religious ceremonies.

Ralí: wooden plate.

Reloncavi: festival in the valleys.

Relonche: denizens of the valley.

Relque: seven.

Renalhue: cemetery.

Rucalhue: site appointed to build a new house.

Rucamalen: girls house.

Ruca Ñire: foxs cave.

Rüfüwe: wooden ladle.

Rupanco: Rupanco: waters flowing.

Rutur: pass by, or nearby.

Letter S

Sangcul: to knead.

Sayi: fruit.

Sefolla: onion.

Saihueque, Sayhueque: chief Valentín "Shaihueque".

Sechu: the gnome.

Serfin: to take care of, to serve.

Siquil Shiquil: ilver ornament worn by araucano women.

Sotaqui: very large.

Suran: to swear.

Suyai: hope.

Letter T

Tahiel: sacred chant.

Tapilhue, trapilhue: site where peppers are grown.

Temuco: temu water or creek.

Til til: bare, barren.

Trabun: to be united.

Trabunco: encounter of waters.

Traful: confluence.

Trancura: fallen stone.

Tomen: totora (plant).

Toquis: stone axes.

Traitraico: water falling with noise.

Trantrapiwe: mortar.

Trapelacucha: pectoral.

Trompul: twisted, crooked.

Tucapel: to take something by force.

Tunquelen: resting site.

Tupu: brooch whose circular head is made of chiseled silver and a long pin, with which it is attached to the dress.

Tuqueco: dead stick creek.

Tutun: to borrow.

Letter U

Ucun: to stay.

Uhueco: isolated creek.

Ulpo: beverage made with toasted flour and cold water.

Umaln: to lodge.

Une: ahead.

Unguelén: to forget.

Uniquen: there is shrimp.

Uñan: lover.

Uñum: birds.

Upeo: oblivion.

Urumen: to faint.

Uwa: corn.

Letter V

Valcheta: narrow valley.

Veinentun: to approve of.

Velehuen: to result.

Veyentun: to be convenient.

Vichuquen: very isolated place.

Villantun: to live in poverty.

Viravira: life herb.

Viruco: cold water creek.

Vuta cura: large stone.

Vuta leuvu: large river.

Letter Y

Yafu: hard.

Yal: son, descendant.

Yali: mosquito.

Yampai: glare.

Yanquen llaunquen: to invite somebody to have a meal.

Yapa: what is given without an obligation, a gift.

Yapai: to provide.

Yarquen: owl.

Yavu: sturdy, strong.

Yene: whale.

Yepan: to take.

Yeumen: agile.

Yevaltum: to order.

Yicoi: to fear.

Yuco: from "Yucón" sharp.

Yuculcu: ring, bracelet.

Yuen: deer.

Yuli: silverside.

Yumbrel: the rainbow in all splendors.

Yunyay: temperate valley.

Yupi: shoulder.

Letter Z

Zapala: mortal swamp.

Zapallo, zapallu: Quechua word, the gourd. In the mapuche tongue: "penca".

Autors: Dra. Carmen Zucarelli, Lic. Marisa Malvestitti, Raúl Izafuirre, Jorge Nahuel. Pehuén Lecturas Marcelino Castro García.

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