Approximately 65 million years ago, a large percentage of vegetables and animals suddenly became extinct. It was in the late Cretaceous period and there are various theories about it. Some scientists attribute this event to a gradual process that finally led to selective extinction. Others assert that a catastrophe, such as an asteroid hitting the Earth, caused these species mass extinction.
Patagonia has a great deal of geographical faults with remarkable geothermal and volcanic activity. These features explain the existence of various sources with hot spring waters. The diversity existing in this area of South America ranges from warm water issuing from the ground, rich in minerals, to geysers with boiling water.